Research Resources

Work-Learn Institute Research Portal

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International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning (IJWIL) - formerly Asia-Pacific Journal Of Co-operative Education (APJCE)

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The IJWIL arose from a desire to produce an international forum for discussion of cooperative education issues for practitioners in the Asia-Pacific region and was intended to provide a mechanism for the dissemination of research, best practice and innovation in work-based learning. Now as the international journal, it’s global impact is represented by all regions. In recognition of international trends in information technology, IJWIL is produced solely in electronic form. Published papers are available as PDF files from this website, and manuscript submission, reviewing and publication is electronically based.

World Association for Co-operative Education (WACE)

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The International Handbook for Cooperative Education brings together authors from around the world to provide a multidimensional perspective on work-integrated learning. It has documented, perhaps for the first time ever, the state of the art in educational programs that incorporate periods of required work that integrate with classroom study. It will be of value to the beginner in the field as a background resource as much to those who have been long involved in cooperative education.p

CEWIL Members Papers

2009: "Linking experiences with emotions and the development of interpretive repertoires"

Author: Norah I. McRae, University of Victoria
© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

In this paper I consider the case of one student, Todd Alexander, through analyzing the transcripts of his interviews between him and his teacher (Wolff-Michael Roth). I examine the role that emotions play in the development of the interpretive repertoires that Todd employed as he talked about his scientific and his religious beliefs. I identify how lived experiences support the development of emotions and what educational conditions are necessary to allow for appropriate lived experiences. In so doing we might be able to support educational conditions that result in interpretive repertoires that allow for acceptance of multiple perspectives with a moral grounding, leading to students who are well positioned to be valuable contributors to society. Full Article

2007 : "Connected Learning in Cooperative Education"

Author: Jeela Jones, University of Ottawa
International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Go to Journal

2006 : "CO-OP Student Programs"

Authored by the CEWIL Canada Research Committee
Canadian Teacher Magazine, Spring 2006
Full Article

Other Journals, Publications, and Papers

2013: Developing the Field of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) in Higher Education: A Curricular Approach Social Sciences Research Network

Rosse, S and Browne, N. (2013) Developing the Field of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) in Higher Education: A Curricular Approach Social Sciences Research Network, ID 2368953.
Full Article

2013: Developing the Field of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) in Higher Education: A Scoping Study and Curriculum Inquiry

Rosse, S and Browne, N. (2014) Developing the Field of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) in Higher Education: A Scoping Study and Curriculum Inquiry. Paper published in proceedings of WACE: Advancing cooperative and work integrated education, University West, Sweden.

2012: Faculty Experiences with and Perception of Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) in the Ontario Postsecondary Sector

Prepared by Julie Peters, Academica Group Inc. for the Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario

2011 - Postsecondary work/learn programs improve productivity

Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario (HEQCO)

According to the exploratory study Work-Integrated Learning in Ontario’s Postsecondary Sector (, commissioned by the Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario (HEQCO), employers are generally satisfied with their participation in postsecondary WIL programs. The study indicates employers are also highly satisfied with the quality of participating students. In fact, the majority of employers in the study report having made job offers to WIL students.

These work/learn programs are also popular with students, especially in Ontario. A recent Ipsos Reid survey found that almost a quarter of Ontarians with some postsecondary education (PSE) experience have participated in co-op education alone; more than any other Canadian province.

The challenge is how to improve these programs, engage more community partners and employers and ensure that the programs are relevant and accessible to an even wider range of postsecondary students.

The phase one study of institutional and employer attitudes toward WIL was conducted in collaboration with a working group of nine Ontario postsecondary institutions: Algonquin College, George Brown College, Georgian College, Niagara College, Laurentian University, University of Ottawa, University of Waterloo, University of Windsor, and Wilfrid Laurier University. Thirty-nine staff members and 25 representatives from business and community organizations who are involved in WIL programs at these institutions participated in this preliminary study.

Both the postsecondary institutions and the employers view work-integrated learning as an important part of the student experience, preparing students to enter the labour market with relevant, transferable and marketable skills. They cite career exploration and improved prospects for employment as the top motivating factor for students – a perspective that will be explored more fully with a faculty survey at 12 Ontario colleges and universities this spring and a student survey in the spring of 2012.

Employers in the study cite access to highly motivated and creative students and improved productivity as key attributes. For the PSE institutions, strengthening linkages with community and enhancing institutional reputation are the most significant benefits of WIL.

Among current challenges, both institutions and employers cite workload issues including paperwork and supervision, securing sufficient placements and/or meeting employer demands for students, and negotiating institutional processes and procedures.

The phase one study suggests expansion of WIL into more academic programs, including at the graduate level; more opportunities for participation by international students; and additional tax credits or other incentives for employer participants. Employers would like to better understand their role and contribution to the learning process, including the learning objectives of, and assessment methods for, students participating in the programs.

The exploratory report was prepared by Peggy Sattler, Senior Policy Analyst, Academica Group Inc.

About the Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario

The Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario is an arm’s-length agency of the Government of Ontario dedicated to ensuring the continued improvement of the postsecondary education system in Ontario. The Council was created through the Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario Act, 2005. It is mandated to conduct research, evaluate the postsecondary education system, and provide policy recommendations to the Minister of Training, Colleges and Universities with a view to enhance the quality, access, and accountability of Ontario’s higher education system.

For further information, please contact:

Susan Bloch-Nevitte
Executive Director, Communications
Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario
(416) 212-5242

Whether it is co-operative education, apprenticeships, service-learning placements or internships, work-integrated learning (WIL) programs at Ontario’s colleges and universities improve productivity for participating employers.

Canadian Council on Learning (CCL)

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Journal of Applied Research on Learning (JARL)

JARL is intended to address topics that, while focused on examples of applied research on learning, will offer readers relevant theoretical discussions and act as a catalyst for expanding existing knowledge in specific areas of practice and/or research on learning relevant to the Canadian context. The journal will be available through CCL’s website as a free publication containing material written in both French and English. JARL will initially be published twice annually as a summer/fall issue and a winter/spring issue.

  • “Making Bridges Visible - Transition from School to Work Report” Full Article

Canadian Policy Researcy Network

"Connecting Supply and Demand in Canada's Youth Labour Market "
Richard Brisbois, Larry Orton, Ron Saunders (Co-op Programs mentioned in the Forward (iii), on pages 30-38, and 51) Full Report (PDF)

Co-operative Education and Internship Association (CEIA)

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The Journal of Cooperative Education and Internships, the international publication on experiential education that focuses on internships, cooperative education and work integrated learning, invites you to scan out archives, read scholarly articles and gain insights from colleagues. Here you will find current and archived articled on work-integrated learning from Volume 1 of the Journal through our current volume. Also you will find:

  • The Journal of Cooperative Education and Internships searchable archive
  • Proceedings or program highlights from regional, national and international conferences
  • Practitioner's Corner - practical non-juried articles and information, examples of forms, agreements, and other practical tools
  • Manuscript submission for any or all of the above sections
  • Book Reviews - solicited by the editors, posted and archived
  • Announcements of current activities relevant to scholars and practitioners, i.e. conferences, call for proposals, and research gatherings

"One Century of Cooperative Education in the United States 1906-2006"


In 2006, the cooperative education (co-op) movement in the United States reached its 100th anniversary. This document outlines its history, from its humble beginnings in engineering education at the University of Cincinnati in 1906 through its modern-day popularity among the academic and industrial communities. We also discuss the significance of cooperative learning as an educational tool. Finally, we discuss the manner in which cooperative education has influenced the workforce in the United States and set forth our expectations for the future of this movement.


Ali A. Houshmand, Ph.D., Dean, Goodwin College of Professional Studies
Constantine Papadakis, Ph.D., President, Drexel University Chair, National Commission for Cooperative Education

With contributing writers and editors Noel Dietrich, Kumars Keramati, James McGill

Drexel University Go to website

Handbook for Research in Cooperative Education and Internship

Edited by P.Linn, A.Howard, E.Miller Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers
10 Industrial Avenue, Mahway, NJ 07430 U.S.A.

isbn 0-8058-4120-0

Canadian contributors:

Chapter 3: Getting Started and Achieving Buy-In: Co-op Education Is Continuous, Contextualized Learning, Garnet Grosjean
Chapter 4: Identifying Resources: Ethics in Co-operative Education, Frances Ricks
Chapter 7: Choosing a Research Instrument: Investigating the Benefits of Co-operative Education, Geraldine Van Gyn
Chapter 9: How to Measure Complex Learning Processes: The Nature of Learning in Cooperative Education, Nancy Johnston, Nello Angerilli, and Natalis Gajdamaschko
Chapter 15: Writing for Publication: Preparation of the Research Report, Patricia M. Rowe

Canadians Value Co-operative Education Programs

Vancouver, BC – An Ipsos Reid online poll of 1,493 adult Canadians reveals the vast majority of Canadians who enrolled in co-op education programs as part of their postsecondary experience, felt their work term had a significant impact on their career choice, getting their first job, their workplace integration, and their academic learning. Half of those who did not do a co-op program say they would have liked to do so. Full Article

Ipsos Special Mini-Report, January 20th, 2010

Ipsos Reid is an Ipsos company, a leading global survey-based market research group.

Earnings and employment outcomes for male and female postsecondary graduates of coop and non-coop programmes

Authors: David Walters, University of Guelph; David Zarifa, McMaster University

The changing needs of employers in the new economy have had a profound effect on the transition from school to work for all recent postsecondary graduates. Cooperative education programs address these needs by providing students with the opportunity to alternate between cycles of academic study and workforce participation, where the work performed by coop students is directly related to their field or program of study. Still little research is available to evaluate how successful coop programs are in terms or improving the labor market prospects of recent graduates in the new economy. Drawing on findings from the 2000 National Graduates Survey, this paper compares the earnings and employment outcomes of postsecondary graduates of coop and non-coop programs. The results reveal that graduates of coop programs report stronger earnings and employment outcomes than graduates of non-coop programs; however, the labor market payoff varies considerably by gender and field of study. The social and policy implications relating to these findings are discussed. Full Article

Co-op students get better jobs and earn more

March 05, 2010
Researchers: Maureen Drysdale, professor of psychology at St. Jerome’s University (University of Waterloo) and John Goyder, professor of sociology at the University of Waterloo.

Study conclusion: Co-op students earn higher salaries and get the most prestigious jobs after graduation compared with their non co-op peers. Full Article